Introduction: Liver kinase 1 (LKB1) plays a critical barrier role in lung tumorigenesis by controlling initiation, differentiation and metastasis. We searched for genetic and epigenetic alterations of the LKB1 gene in Korean NSCLCs and correlated the results with clinicopathological features. We also investigated the relationship between genetic and epigenetic alterations of LKB1 and mutations in the TP53 gene and EGFR pathway genes. Methods: A total of 159 NSCLCs were analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at microsatellite loci D19S886, and D19S878. Mutations and methylation status of LKB1 were examined by direct sequencing and a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Results: A somatic mutation was found in one of the 159 tumors. LOH and promoter methylation was detected in 19.5% (31/159) and 13.2% (21/159) of the tumors, respectively. Four of the 159 tumors had concomitant LOH and methylation of LKB1. In total, 30.2% of the 159 NSCLCs harbored LKB1 LOH or promoter methylation, which were correlated with down-regulation of gene expression. LKB1 LOH was more frequent in males, smokers, and tumors with a TP53 mutation than in females, never-smokers, and tumors without a TP53 mutation, respectively. However, no significant correlation between LKB1 alterations and mutations in EGFR pathway genes was found. Conclusion: These results suggest that the prevalence of LKB1 genetic and epigenetic alterations in NSCLCs vary depending on patient ethnicity. Our results show that LKB1 alterations often occur simultaneously with mutations in EGFR pathway genes.