Tuberculosis is typically caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a symbiotic bacterium found in one third of the world population. There any many factors triggering overt clinical disease in a small proportion of humans. In our view the major role in this process is played by host`s immune response, especially self-directed, destructive inflammation. Conventional che-motherapy produces bactericidal or bacteriostatic effects, but immunopathological changes can be corrected by immunotherapy only. Various attempts have been made to find the optimal immune intervention. Some have shown promising effect, but many have failed. It is commonly held that the field started in 1890-the year Robert Koch announced his tuberculin therapy. In the P?n Ts`ao Kang Mu - classical Chinese materia medica published during Ming dynasty - Li Shi Chen (1518-1593) recom-mended as a remedy for hemoptysis to collect from the sputum "…blood lumps, roast them till they are black, and take then them as a powder." In retrospect, this is perhaps the earliest recorded reference relating to immunotherapy of TB with heat-kil-led mycobacteria. Modern science is obviously geared toward more palatable approach, but without hindsight from often dis-dained empirical evidence no progress can be made. Clinically tested immunotherapies for tuberculosis recently developed by us will be presented in this talk.