Ethanol extract of Gastrodia elata fermented with Lactobacillus brevis was highly effective on the duration of pentobarbital hypnosis in mice. Pretreatment of mice with ethanol extract of the fermented Gastrodia elata (200 mg/kg, p.o.) prolonged markedly the duration of pentobarbital sleeping time and reduced the sleep latency. The mechanism of the extract of the fermented Gastrodia elata was investigated to inhibit the binding of 3 H-Flumazenil, a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, to benzodiazepine receptor of mice cortices. IC50 value from displacement of 3 H-Flumazenil binding was 62 μg/mL at the treatment of the fermented Gastrodia elata. Therefore, these finding, such as increase of sleeping time and reduction of sleep latency, was examined by elevated concentration of GABA and parishin C, which were increased by Lactobacillus brevis.