예수교장로회 조선총회 100년을 돌아보며 : 한국의 근대화와 한국장로교회: 회고와 전망
분야
인문과학 > 종교학
저자
장동민 ( Dong Min Jang )
발행기관
한국장로교신학회
간행물정보
장로교회와 신학 2012년, 제9권 203~230페이지(총28페이지)
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    국문초록
    본 논문의 목적은 두 가지이다. 첫째는 한국장로교회가 한국의 역사에, 내용적으로 말하자면, 한국근대화에 지대한 영향을 미쳤다는 것을 증명하는 것이다. 선교사가전하여준 복음을 받은 한국 기독교는, 복음과 더불어 근대정신을 공유하게 되었다. 미국 개신교가 가진 근면과 금욕의 덕이 자연스럽게 한국 기독교에도 정착되어 자본주의를 가능하게 하는 원동력이 되었다. 근대 과학을 가능하게 한 세계관이 미신적인 세계관을 대치하였다. 봉건적 신분제도를 타파하는 데도 기독교는 큰 공헌을 하였고, 민족주의가 정착되도록 하였다. 기독교=근대화라는 등식이 성립되었다고 해도 과언이 아니다. 한국 기독교를 비판하는 사람들의 주된 관점 가운데 하나가 한국 기독교가 한국 역사에 아무런 기여를 하지 못했다고 하는 것인데, 이에 대한 응답인 셈이다. 둘째는 정말 한국 기독교(장로교)가 한국 역사의 발전에 기여한 것이 사실이라고 하면, 왜 오늘날 많은 사람들이 그렇게 느끼지 못하고 있는가 하는 질문에 대한 답변을 제시하는 것이다. ① 한국 장로교회는 기독교의 영향력을 사적인 영역으로 혹은 부드러운 방법으로 제한시켰다. 점차로 정교분리의 논리가 힘을 얻어 보수적장로교회 내에서 민주화나 노동문제, 통일이나 환경 등의 공적인 영역에서 담론을 형성해 내지 못하게 되었다. ② 신학적인 이유이든 사회학적 이유이든 장로교가 분열되어 극심한 반목과 대립 가운데 있었던 것이, 신학적으로 진보적인 장로교가 정치적으로 진보적이 되게 하였고, 신학적으로 보수적인 장로교가 정치적으로도 보수적이 되게 하는 데 일조하였다. ③ 기독교가 근대화에 기여한 바가 많을 뿐 아니라, 한국기독교가 근대정신의 상당부분을 수용한 지금, 근대화 자체를 싫어하는 ‘포스트모더니즘’(post-modernism)
    영문초록
    The goals of this thesis are two: First, to demonstrate that the Korean Presbyterian church has given large influences to Korean history, namely the modernization of Korea. The Korean church, having received the gospel transmitted by the American evangelical missionaries, came to share the modernist mentality with them. The virtue of diligence and temperance of the American Protestantism became a part of the Korean church, providing the spirit of Capitalism. Scientific worldview replaced superstitious worldview, prevalent among the ancient Koreans. Western Christianity made contribution to the breaking down the feudalistic status system and to the rising of modern nationalism. It is no exaggeration to say that Christianity equals modernization among many Koreans. Second goal of this thesis is to show the answer to the question: if all the contributions of Christianity to Korean society are true, why so many scholars and the Korean people do not feel that way? It is because, ① Korean Presbyterian church has limited Christian influence only to the private realm or personal ethic. Separation of church and state banned the formation of discussions itself such as democratization, the labor union, the reunification of the Korean Peninsula, or the environment issues. ② The schism of the Korean Presbyterian church between right-wing and left-wing helped theologically liberal church to become politically liberal, and theologically conservative more conservative in the political sphere too. ③ Now that Western Christianity gave a lot of influences to the modernization of Korea and that the Korean church accommodated considerable amount of the modernist spirit, so-called post-modernism made an appearance in the Korean society. The latter criticizes modernism in many ways: it brings to the fore a dark side of Capitalism and industrialization, it tends to regress to the ancient Oriental worldview denying modern scientific worldview, it blames Christianity for the discrimination against non-Christians and homosexuals and it even dislikes patriotism. In short those who do not like modernism do not like Korean Christianity, since the latter has everything the former has. Through the discussion of modernization and Christianity in Korea, the tasks of the Korean Presbyterians’ social engagement. First, they have to find a way to engage social matters in the time of ‘secularization’ and to integrate the conservative and the liberal, theologically and politically. Second, they have to cope with the challenge of post-modernism which blames Christianity for all the modernist acid. They have to reconsider the equality that Christianity equals modernism: on the one hand acknowledging the universal and biblical values modernism brought, but on the other hand seeing the wrongs of modernism with critical eyes. The goals of this thesis are two: First, to demonstrate that the Korean Presbyterian church has given large influences to Korean history, namely the modernization of Korea. The Korean church, having received the gospel transmitted by the American evangelical missionaries, came to share the modernist mentality with them. The virtue of diligence and temperance of the American Protestantism became a part of the Korean church, providing the spirit of Capitalism. Scientific worldview replaced superstitious worldview, prevalent among the ancient Koreans. Western Christianity made contribution to the breaking down the feudalistic status system and to the rising of modern nationalism. It is no exaggeration to say that Christianity equals modernization among many Koreans. Second goal of this thesis is to show the answer to the question: if all the contributions of Christianity to Korean society are true, why so many scholars and the Korean people do not feel that way? It is because, ① Korean Presbyterian church has limited Christian influence only to the private realm or personal ethic. Separation of church and state banned the formation of discussions itself such as democratization, the labor union, the reunification of the Korean Peninsula, or the environment issues. ② The schism of the Korean Presbyterian church between right-wing and left-wing helped theologically liberal church to become politically liberal, and theologically conservative more conservative in the political sphere too. ③ Now that Western Christianity gave a lot of influences to the modernization of Korea and that the Korean church accommodated considerable amount of the modernist spirit, so-called post-modernism made an appearance in the Korean society. The latter criticizes modernism in many ways: it brings to the fore a dark side of Capitalism and industrialization, it tends to regress to the ancient Oriental worldview denying modern scientific worldview, it blames Christianity for the discrimination against non-Christians and homosexuals and it even dislikes patriotism. In short those who do not like modernism do not like Korean Christianity, since the latter has everything the former has. Through the discussion of modernization and Christianity in Korea, the tasks of the Korean Presbyterians’ social engagement. First, they have to find a way to engage social matters in the time of ‘secularization’ and to integrate the conservative and the liberal, theologically and politically. Second, they have to cope with the challenge of post-modernism which blames Christianity for all the modernist acid. They have to reconsider the equality that Christianity equals modernism: on the one hand acknowledging the universal and biblical values modernism brought, but on the other hand seeing the wrongs of modernism with critical eyes.
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