Bacterial blight, an important and potentially destructive bacterial disease in rice caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), has recently developed resistance to the available antibiotics. In this study, mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolite profiling and multivariate analysis were employed to investigate the correlation between timedependent metabolite changes and antimicrobial activities against Xoo over the course of Phomopsis longicolla S1B4 fermentation. Metabolites were clearly differentiated based on fermentation time into phase 1 (days 4-8) and phase 2 (days 10-20) in the principal component analysis (PCA) plot. The multivariate statistical analysis showed that the metabolites contributing significantly for phases 1 and 2 were deacetylphomoxanthone B, monodeacetylphomoxanthone B, fusaristatin A, and dicerandrols A, B, and C as identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and dimethylglycine, isobutyric acid, pyruvic acid, ribofuranose, galactofuranose, fructose, arabinose, hexitol, myristic acid, and propylstearic acid were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolite profiling. The most significantly different secondary metabolites, especially deacetylphomoxanthone B, monodeacetylphomoxanthone B, and dicerandrol A, B and C, were positively correlated with antibacterial activity against Xoo during fermentation.