Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of proteins trigger many critical events involved in cellular response, such as regulation of enzymatic activity, protein conformational change, protein-protein interaction, and cellular localization. Any malfunction of protein phosphorylation leads to a diseased state such as diabetes, cancer, and even neurodegenerative diseases. In order to comprehend the molecular view of the complex biological processes of these diseases in depth, very sensitive and detailed analytical methods are necessary for identification of the phosphorylated residues in a protein. As part of these efforts, phosphoproteomics has been developed and applied for the elucidation of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we present a brief summary of phosphoproteomics approaches that are now routinely used in biomedical research, and describe the biomedical application of phosphoproteomics especially in Alzheimer`s and other neurodegenerative diseases.