Phylogenetic analysis of the groEL1 and xynB1 gene sequences from Sorangium cellulosum strains isolated in Korea previously revealed the existence of at least 5 subgroups (A-E). In the present study, we used sequence analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified biosynthetic genes of strains from the 5 subgroups to indicate correlations between S. cellulosum subgroups and their secondary metabolic gene categories. We detected putative biosynthetic genes for disorazol, epothilone, ambruticin, and soraphen in group A, group C, group D, and group E strains, respectively. With the exception of KYC3204, culture extracts from group A, group B, and group C strains exhibited no noticeable antimicrobial inhibitory activities. By contrast, culture extracts from group D strains inhibited the growth of Candida albicans, whereas culture extracts from group E strains inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Staphylococcus aureus. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the culture extracts from the strains of each subgroup revealed unique peak patterns. Our findings indicate the existence of at least 5 subgroups of S. cellulosum strains, each of which has the potential to produce a unique set of secondary metabolites.