Bacillus subtilis XF-1, a strain with demonstrated ability to control clubroot disease caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae, was studied to elucidate its mechanism of antifungal activity against P. brassicae. Fengycin-type cyclopeptides (FTCPs), a well-known class of compounds with strong fungitoxic activity, were purified by acid precipitation, methanol extraction, and chromatographic separation. Eight homologs of fengycin, seven homologs of dehydroxyfengycin, and six unknown FTCPs were characterized with LC/ESI-MS, LC/ESI-MS/MS, and NMR. FTCPs (250μg/ml) were used to treat the resting spores of P. brassicae (107/ml) by detecting leakage of the cytoplasm components and cell destruction. After 12 h treatment, the absorbencies at 260 nm (A260) and at 280 nm (A280) increased gradually to approaching the maximum of absorbance, accompanying the collapse of P. brassicae resting spores, and nearly no complete cells were observed at 24 h treatment. The results suggested that the cells could be cleaved by the FTCPs of B. subtilis XF-1, and the diversity of FTCPs was mainly attributed to a mechanism of clubroot disease biocontrol.