Anthrax is a bacterial disease caused by the aerobic sporeforming bacterium Bacillus anthracis, which is an important pathogen owing to its ability to be used as a terror agent. B. anthracis spores can escape phagocytosis and initiate the germination process even in antimicrobial conditions, such as oxidative stress. To analyze the oxidative stress response in B. anthracis and thereby learn how to prevent antimicrobial resistance, we performed protein expression profiling of B. anthracis strain HY1 treated with 0.3 mM hydrogen peroxide using a comparative proteomics-based approach. The results showed a total of 60 differentially expressed proteins; among them, 17 showed differences in expression over time. We observed time-dependent changes in the production of metabolic and repair/protection signaling proteins. These results will be useful for uncovering the metabolic pathways and protection mechanisms of the oxidative response in B. anthracis.