사제 요한 왕국의 전설 형성
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인문과학 > 서양사
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남종국 ( Jong Kuk Nam )
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한국서양중세사학회
간행물정보
서양중세사연구 2013년, 제32권 81~106페이지(총26페이지)
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    This article aims to search for historical factors which made the formation of the legend of Prester John. Medieval Europe believed that he, a descendant of the Three Magi, was a priest and a king dominating an immense kingdom in the three Indies, where there were many marvelous things, precious metals, remarkable fauna and flora, etc. The first document which mentions Prester John is the chronicle composed by Otto, bishop of Freising. According to his chronicle, Hugh, bishop of Jabala, related that a certain John, a prester and a king, won a victory against the kings of the Persians and Medes, and then advanced to the help of the Christians of Jerusalem. In general, this event is generally considered as the beginning of the myth of the Prester John. However, several factors played their respective role in creating the legend of the kingdom of the Prester John. Eastern Christians well established in Orient transferred their existence and activities to Western Christians frequently exaggerating and transforming them. Especially, Nestorians continued to tell stories and informations of the Prester John. The second factor was Prester John`s letter addressed to the byzantine emperor about in 1165. It was full of marvelous things including paradise. The original letter was translated into many european languages and enjoyed much popularity so that the story of the kingdom of Prester John became well known to the public. It had much influence on the imagination of the Orient of medieval european people. Lastly, military conflicts and battles against Muslims, for example the Crusades, caused the increase of rumors and prophecies of Eastern Chrisitians` coming to aid the Crusaders, such as rumor of Prester John and king David.
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