A lack of investigation in specific regions has impeded the understanding of epidemiological trends in the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in South Korea. To help fill this research gap, this study used multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) to determine the prevalence of STIs detected in clinical specimens collected from women in Cheonan, South Korea between August 2006 and November 2012, and analyzed the prevalence of STIs according to age, bacterial pathogen, and time period. Of the 1,618 specimens collected from 1,523 patients, 536 (35.2%) tested positive for at least 1 pathogen, with 407 (25.2%) testing positive for 1 pathogen, 103 (6.4%) for 2 pathogens, 20 (1.2%) for 3 pathogens, and 6 (0.4%) for 4 pathogens (n = 697 pathogens total). The median ages of all patients and of STI-positive patients were 37.8 and 33.3 years, respectively, and both decreased annually over the study period. Mycoplasma hominis (MH) was detected in 62.1% of the positive specimens, Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in 28.4%, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in 23.1%, Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in 7.8%, Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in 6.5%, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) in 2.1%. Whereas the prevalence of MH, MG, and TV infection did not vary greatly over the study period, that of UU decreased by one-fifth and that of both CT and NG increased 4-fold. The results indicate great variability in the rates of infection with each pathogen and a decreasing trend in overall STI prevalence, age of patients seeking STI testing, and age of STI-positive patients.