Ganciclovir resistance of human cytomegalovirus is associated with mutations in the viral UL97 gene and poses severe problems for immunocompromised patients. In this study, PCRbased restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses detected the UL97 D605E mutation in all five clinical isolates from patients with ganciclovir-resistant human cytomegalovirus infection during prolonged ganciclovir therapy, whereas the M460V mutation was only present in 1 of 5 isolates. On the other hand, the detection rates of the D605E mutation in the stored available DNA samples from the donor and allogeneic stem cell transplantation recipients were 66.7% and 93.7%, respectively, suggesting that the presence of D605E mutation was not associated with the ganciclovir exposure. Although the D605E mutation may not be related to ganciclovir resistance, we suggest that this mutation could be an important molecular marker of human cytomegalovirus evolution in East Asian countries. Moreover, the restriction fragment length polymorphism method using the restriction enzyme HaeIII, which is generally used to detect the UL97 A591V mutation, could also detect the D605E mutation and may therefore be a useful tool for future research on the investigation of UL97 gene mutations.