|The eglS gene in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens encodes an endo-β-1,4-glucanase that belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 5. In this study, a disruption mutant of gene eglS was constructed to examine its role in bacterial adaptation in plants. The mutant TB2k, eglS gene inactivated bacterial strain, was remarkably impaired in extracellular cellulase activity. When inoculated on Brassica campestris, the TB2k population was reduced by more than 60% compared with the wild-type strain in the root, stem, and leaf tissues. Overexpression of eglS in the wild-type strain increased the bacteria population in the plant tissues. Further studies revealed that the transcription level of eglS was correlated with bacterial population. These data demonstrate that endo-β-1,4-glucanase of B. amyloliquefaciens is required for its optimal endophytic colonization.