|This study aimed to establish the quantitative method to analyze the content of peroxynitrite-scavengers belonging to polyphenols in six Korean Quercus species (Quercus mongolica, Q. dentata, Q. acutissima, Q. alienta, Q. serrata, and Q. variabilis) by HPLC. The twelve peroxynitrite-scavengers, flavanols (catechins: (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin), flavonols (kaempferol and quercetin), flavonol glycosides (astragalin, quercitrin, and isoquercitrin), flavonol acylated glycosides (astragalin 6``-gallate and isoquercitrin 6``-gallate), gallic acid and its dimer (ellagic acid) were analyzed by HPLC. Further, anti-Alzheimer`s activity was assayed in a passive avoidance testusing mice by measuring the retention latency (sec), the concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Simultaneous analysis of the extracts of the six Quercus leaves was achieved on a Capcell C18 column (5 μm, 250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d.) with a gradient elution of 0.05% HAc and 0.05% HAc in CH3CN. In the extract of Q. mongolica leaves, the content of gallic acid (32.53 mg/g), (+)-catechin (28.78 mg/g), (-)-epicatehin (22.03 mg/g), astragalin 6``-gallate (20.94 mg/g), and isoquercitrin 6``-gallate (44.11 mg/g) and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity (IC50, 0.831 μg/ml) were high. This extract delayed the retention latency and inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in scopolamine-induced memory impairment of mice, suggesting that it has anti-Alzheimer`s activity.