The goals of this study are to explore cross-national and gender differences between American 3-yearolds` and Korean 3-year-olds` shame and guilt behaviors and their mothers` reports of their shame and guilt. It was predicted that Korean children would show more shame while Americans would show more guilt, and that girls would show more shame while boys would show more guilt. Results indicated that although mothers reported higher guilt in American children than Korean children, Korean children were actually quicker to show guilt behavior than were American children. As predicted, Korean children showed higher levels of shame and maternally reported shame than American children. Similarly, as predicted, girls showed more shame than boys, and although mothers reported more guilt in boys than girls, boys were slower to show guilt behavior than were girls.