For the purpose of developing new immunomodulatory agents from broccoli, ethanol extract (BCEE), hot water extract (BCHW), and crude polysaccharide (BCCP) were isolated from broccoli, and their immunomodulatory activities and chemical properties were examined. In the in vitro cytotoxicity analysis, BCHW and BCCP did not affect the growth of tumor cells and normal cells. Murine peritoneal macrophages stimulated with BCCP showed higher production of IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α cytokines than those stimulated with BCHW. Also, BCHW and BCCP did not show proliferation of splenic lymphocytes. In the in vitro assay for intestinal immunomodulatory activities, only BCCP enhanced GM-CSF secretion and the bone marrow cell-proliferating activity via cells in Peyer’s patches at 1,000 μg/mL. Also, BCHW mainly contained 33.7% neutral sugars, such as arabinose, glucose, and galactose, and 30.7% uronic acid, and BCCP consisted of 42.6% neutral sugars, including arabinose, galactose, and glucose, and 50.5% uronic acid. The above results lead us to conclude that crude polysaccharide (BCCP) isolated from broccoli causes considerably high cytokine production in peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow cell proliferation, and the polysaccharide extraction process is indispensable for separation of new immunomodulatory agents from broccoli.