Efficient cellulolytic enzyme production is important for the development of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme mixtures. However, purification of cellulases from their native hosts is time- and labor-consuming. In this study, a constitutive expression system was developed in Penicillium oxalicum for the secreted production of proteins. Using a constitutive polyubiquitin gene promoter and cultivating with glucose as the sole carbon source, nine cellulolytic enzymes of different origins with relatively high purity were produced within 48 h. When supplemented to a commercial cellulase preparation, cellobiohydrolase I from P. funiculosum and cellobiohydrolase II from Talaromyces verruculosus showed remarkable enhancing effects on the hydrolysis of steam-exploded corn stover. Additionally, a synergistic effect was observed for these two cellobiohydrolases during the hydrolysis. Taken together, the constitutive expression system provides a convenient tool for the production of cellulolytic enzymes, which is expected to be useful in the development of highly efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzyme mixtures.