|This study compares the results of environmental impact assessment with the results of post-environmental investigation, using the case of Taean thermal power plant construction. The atmospheric and water qualities were not greatly changed before and after the construction of the power plant. However, the site of the highest concentration predicted by the atmospheric quality modeling in environmental impact assessment was different from that after operation of 4 power plants. There was also a difference in the diffusion range of thermal discharge water between the measured result(1㎞) and the predicted value(1.5㎞) with the model. Thus, environmental impact evaluation should be based on long-term (more than a year) environmental monitoring data. For the modeling of atmospheric quality and numerical thermal discharge water diffusion, appropriate models for each plant should be selected and the numerical modeling should be accompanied by computer simulation, wind tunnel test, etc. Moreover, environmental evaluation should focus more on the degree of impact on surroundings than the prediction of changes in surroundings caused by operation of plants.