|High-stake exams, used by the national authority to rank and select students, exert great control over schooling in Korea. In theory, evaluation should be an intergral and composite part of curriculum, but in reality ebaluation controls curriculum. The college entrance exam, in the past, and the higher education ability tests, in the present, provide ample evidence of this reality. As long as these high-stake exams continue to distort school-based learning, it will remain impossible to implement forms of evaluation which strive to improve education. Changes in culture and society often necessitate shifts in educational priorities. For Korean society today, school education must be transformed from a process of passive learning to a process of active learning, which fosters students` abilities to create new knowledge. Curriculum and evaluation reform must focus on this requisite reform task, otherwise the goals and eventrual outcomes of curriculum and evaluation will be meaningless. In this regard, the old model of government-lead, high-stake exams must be replaced by a new model of internal school-based evaluations. When this occurs, students will be provided with a much deeper and higer quality learning experience and teachers will be more motitated to improve their professionalism and the quality of education as a whole.