|The progress of privatization can be divided into four phases: the introductory phase, the progression phase, the maturation phase, and the completion phase. China and Vietnam are concluding their maturation phase, whereas North Korea is still in the early stages of its introductory phase. In the field of agricultural reform, China and Vietnam have adopted a production responsibility system with managerial oversight and aderegulation of agricultural product prices in order to provide incentives. Subsequently, both countries achieved an increase in production. North Korea is in the early stages of adopting a similar production responsibility system. In the field of state-owned enterprise reform, China and Vietnam promoted equitization from small and medium-sized enterprises, and the reform of large state-owned enterprises has been implemented in a gradual manner. In contrast, decentralization is only in its early stages in North Korea. In the field of private economic activity, individual agricultural systems were developed in China following the emergence of private enterprises. De facto private farming also took place in Vietnam, and private enterprise was legalized. In North Korea, home working groups came into existence by encouraging the development of the 8.3 People`s Consumer Goods. As a result, the development of small private enterprises began to show potential. The cultivation of side-job farming also opened up the feasibility of private farming.