|The main topic I would like to discuss here is the interaction between translation and creative writing and the role translation plays in the development of new literary genres in the Taisho era. By taking up the example of leading anti-naturalism novelists of the time, Jun`ichiro Tanizaki (1886-1965) and Haruo Sato (1892-1964) in particular, I aim to shed light on the problem of creativity in translation. Tanizaki translated prose poems of Charles Baudelaire and Edgar Allan Poe`s tale (“The Fall of the House of Usher”), while Sato translated Anatole France`s novel and fantastic tales of Poe in Taisho era. There is no doubt that literaly translations by these writers brought about a new writing style by using the fundamentally foreign structure of original language and played an important role in shaking up their attempt to write prose poems (or “prose-poem-like” works) in the Taisho era. Sato, who discriminated carefully between prose and poem, called his superb fantastic stories, such as “Supein-ken no ie” (The House of Spanish Dog, 1917), “prose-poem-like” works, whereas Tanizaki published a collection of prose poems, Ningyo no nageki (The Sorrow of a Mermaid), including one of his obscure excellent works, “Majutsu-shi” (The Magician), in 1919. A close examination of their translations and prose poems would reveal that through these exercises they learned how to render prose depicting the fantastic and the aesthetic in a new way.