|This paper considers the thought of Huang Zongxi - which is based upon the intellectual tradition of the Yangming School and also adheres to the idea that li (理) never existed on its own but was always a part of existing qi (氣) - by focusing on the notion of ‘virtue’ and examining how it is regarded within his writings. As the material existence of human beings comes from qi, and as the world is comprised of the movement of qi, the two are interlinked and move together. The mind that is able to sense what is good is also qi, and it constantly moves within a state of excess and deficiency. As such, individuals, as imperfect beings, must come together within society to keep in check, and compensate for, their shortcomings and to develop their virtues. Therefore, the formation of a society and the establishment of institutions that can provide a positive environment in which virtue can develop becomes an important moral and political task. The way in which Huang Zongxi focused on the development of virtue and how he combined this development of virtue with politics provides new insights for the field of modern virtue ethics, as well as demonstrating a way forward for Confucianism in the modern period.