|The anatomy and histology of the olfactory organ in Oryzias sinensis was researched using a stereo microscope and light microscope. In the gross structure, the paired olfactory organs on the dorsal part of the head consist of two nostrils (a circular anterior nostril and a slit posterior nostril in a distance), a single olfactory chamber and a single accessory nasal sac. In the histological study, the epithelium of the olfactory chamber is classified into both sensory and non-sensory regions. The sensory epithelium consists of olfactory receptor neurons, supporting cells, basal cells and vesicles, and is islet in distributional pattern. The non-sensory epithelium is composed of stratified epithelial cells and two types of mucous cells (acidic and neutral cells). The epithelium of the accessory nasal sac has swollen stratified epithelial cells, mucous cells with a rich glycoprotein. Such an olfactory anatomy and histology of O. sinensis may reflect its habitat surrounding stagnant and polluted water.