[식품저장학] Food Irradiation Technology(방사선살균기술)에 대한 자료입니다.
i. What is Irradiation?
ii. History of irradiation
II. Main Subjects
i. Food irradiation process
ii. Effects & Merits
A. Industrial application
B. Research of irradiation
Who is interested in the process?
Alongside traditional methods of processing and preserving food, the technology of food irradiation is gaining more and more attention around the world. Although regarded as a new technology by some individuals, research on food irradiation dates back to the turn of the century with the first USA and British patents being issued in 1905 for the use of ionizing radiation to kill bacteria in food. Today, health and safety authorities in over 40 countries have approved irradiation of over 60 different foods, ranging from spices to grains to deboned chicken meat, to beef, to fruits and vegetables. As of August 1999, over 30 countries are irradiating food for commercial purposes. There are approximately 60 irradiation facilities being used for this purpose with more under construction or at the planning stage.
Decisions in these and other countries to irradiate food have been influenced by the adoption, in 1983, of a worldwide standard covering irradiated foods. The standard was adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission, a joint body of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO), responsible for issuing food standards to protect consumer health and facilitate fair practice in food trade, representing more than 150 governments. The Codex General Standard for food irradiation was based on the findings of a Joint Expert Committee on Food Irradiation (JECFI) convened by the FAO, WHO, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The JECFI has evaluated available data in 1964, 1969, 1976, and 1980. In 1980, it concluded that the irradiation of any food commodity up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy presents no toxicological hazard and requires no further testing. It stated that irradiation up to 10 kGy introduces no special nutritional or microbiological problems in foods. In September 1997 a Study Group was jointly convened by the WHO, FAO and IAEA to evaluate the wholesomeness of food irradiated with doses above 10 kGy. This Study Group concluded that there is no scientific basis for limiting absorbed doses to the upper level of 10 kGy as currently recommended by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Food irradiation technology is safe to such a degree that as long as the sensory qualities of food are retained and harmful microorganisms are destroyed, the actual amount of ionizing radiation applied is of secondary consideration.
Why are countries interested?
Interest in the irradiation process is increasing because of persistently high food losses from infestation, contamination, and spoilage; mounting concerns over food-borne diseases; and growing international trade in food products that must meet strict import standards of quality and quarantine, all areas in which food irradiation has demonstrated practical benefits when integrated within an established system for the safe handling and distribution of food. In addition, with increasingly restricted regulations or complete prohibition on the use of a number of chemical fumigants for insect and microbial control in food, irradiation is an effective alternative to protect food against insect damage and as a quarantine treatment of fresh produce.
The FAO has estimated that worldwide about 25% of all food production is lost to insects, bacteria and rodents after harvesting. The use of irradiation alone as a preservation technique will not solve all the problems of post-harvest food losses, but it can play an important role in cutting losses and reducing the dependence on chemical pesticides. Many countries lose vast amounts of grain because of insect infestation and moulds. For roots and tubers, sprouting is the major cause of losses. Several countries, including Bangladesh, Chile, China, Hungary, Japan, Republic of Korea and Thailand are irradiating one or more food products (grains, potatoes, spices, dried fish, onions, garlic, etc.) to control food losses on a commercial basis.
Foodborne diseases pose a widespread threat to human health and they are an important cause of reduced economic productivity even in advanced countries which have modern food processing and distribution systems. Although the amount of foodborne disease caused by pathogenic bacteria in the United States is not known with accuracy, it was estimated in 1994 by a task force of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) that the number of cases likely range from 6.5 million to 33 million annually and that deaths may be as high as 9,000 annually. The United States Department of Agricultures (USDA) Economic Research Service estimates that diseases caused by E. coli O157:H7 due to consumption of insufficiently cooked ground beef result in US $200 million to $440 million in annual medical costs and productivity losses. In developing countries, diseases caused by parasites such as Taenia solium and Trichinella spiralis constitute a major problem, and together with b
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