Repeat biopsy at 6 monthes
: Strong predictor of ESRD
- ongoing inflamations with cellular crescent, macrophages in the tubular lumens, immune deposits
Membraneous > Proliferative
Pure membranous > Superimposed Proliferative lesions( Class III + V , Class IV +V)
- 72% 10-year survival rates vs 20-48% 10-year survival rates
aggressive treatment to avoid irrevers
Adherence rate of therapy : Sub-Saharan Africa > North America
->why? Easy to be more alerted in SS Africa. Especially visitors.
But Sustained treatment puts AIDS into chronic state
-> this kind of side effect will decrease overtime.
* DART trial (in uganda)
-Entebbe cohort: untreated control group
-> dramatic impact on survival rate
Upon antiretroviral therapy
1981-1992 : be
Cancer patients with venous thrombosis at diagnosis have a worse prognosis.
- Distant metastasis: 44% versus 35.1%
- 1 year survival rate: 12% versus 36%
Cancer patients are more likely to have large, proximal, persistent, and recurrent venous thrombosis.
Clinical diagnosis alone lacks sensitivity and specificity for acute venous thrombosis.
Diagnostic imaging studies such as d
survival rate is approximately 60%.
발병장소:thoracic and abdominal aorta.
-Occlusive aortic disease의 원인:
distal abdominal aorta below the renal arteries에 발생하는 atherosclerosis .
-증상의 심각성은 adequacy of collaterals에 달려있다.
충분한 collateral blood flow존재한다면,
ischemic symptoms 발달 없이 abdominal aorta 의 완전한 폐쇄가