Anti-inflammatory activities of septicine, a natural alkaloid product present in the leaves and stems of Tylophora ovata, were evaluated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine macrophages, RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with septicine inhibited LP
The present study aimed to examine the hepatoprotective effects of ethanol extracts from steam-dried ginseng berry (SGBE) in both D-Galactosamine/Lipopolysaccharide (D-GalN/LPS)-sensitized mice and in vitro models. Our results clearly demonstrated t
lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. No significant toxicity was detected in RAW264.7 cells treated with 100?400 μM EGCG. Moreover, the optimal concentration of LPS was determined to be 1 ㎍/ml based on the results of cell viability
lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of korean royal jelly (20, 50, 100μg/ml). Korean royal jelly decreased expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in LPS-stimulated macrophages. In particular, TNF-α and IL-1β levels were reduced in a concentratio
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans,
are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide
joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer
membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, act as endotoxins and
elicit strong immune responses in animals.
LPS is the major component of the outer membrane of
Gram-negative bacteria, contributing greatly to the structu
◇ 미생물학 발전에 중요한 역할 수행, 일반적인 미생물학 연구의 기본적인 도구로 사용 중
- 대물렌즈(Objective lense)
- 대안렌즈(Ocular lense)
- 촛점조절노브(Focusing knobs)
◇ 광시야 현미경(Bright-field microscope)
- 기본적인 미생
easily and crystal violet is remained continuously. In case of Gram positive bacteria, cell wall consists of thin peptidoglycan layer and outer membrane which Gram positive bacteria dont have and is composed of lipopolysaccharide as lipid component. It is decolorized by organic decolorizer easily because cell wall consists of lipid so it is dyed by safranin solution that is red or pink color.
lipopolysaccharide(LPS)로 이루어져 있어 탈색제에 의해 Crystal violet이 쉽게 탈색되며 따라서 대조 염색액인 Safranin 으로 염색되어 붉은색을 나타낸다.
Crystal violet, Iodine, Ethanol, Safranin
에탄올을 일정시간 처리하면 탈색되기 시작하는데 에탄올은 지질의 용매로서 작용한다. 따라서 세포벽에 얇은 펩티도글리칸
lipopolysaccharid, lipoprotein등으로 이루어진 외막(outer membrane)이 존재한다. 이러한 그람 양성균과 음성균의 세포벽 구조의 차이로 인해서 그람 염색의 양상이 달라지게 되었다.
【그람양성균과 음성균의 세포벽의 구조적인 차이】
a. Gram양성균의 세포벽구조
· 여러 개의 peptidoglycan으로 구성되어 두껍고(20~8