metallic calcium but from
a calcium oxalate precipitate.
b. The precipitate is not anhydrous calcium oxalate but rather a
monohydrate of calcium oxalate (CaC
c. The oxalate is created from chemical reactions of a solution of
plus 2.5 mL of 12 M HCl with base created from the
hydrolysis of urea.
d. All of what we learned before about handling samples, constant
metallic salts, aluminum and iron salts being the most common.
The coagulation process using filter alum, Al2(SO4)3 14.3 H2O, the standard coagulant in water treatment, is thought to proceed in the following three stages:
1. The alum ionizes in the water, producing Al+3 and SO4-2 ions. Some of the Al+3 ions neutralize the negative charge on the colloids, but
2. Most of the Al3+ ions combine with
adsorption of invertase on activated charcoal.
1956 Invention of the first oxygen electrode [Leland Clark]
1962 First description of a biosensor: an amperometric enzyme electrode for glucose. [Leland Clark]
1969 First potentiometric biosensor: urease immobilized on an ammonia electrode to detect urea. [Guilbault and Montalvo]
1970 Invention of the Ion-Selective Field-Effect Transistor (IS
metallic electronic conductivity has been reported in a previous communication. Bard and co-workers have extended this method for the fabrication of self- assembled spherical ultramicroelectrodes by confining the self-assembly process to the tip end of a quartz micropipet.
The present paper focuses on the unusual optical and electronic properties of multila- yer thin films formed by stepwise s
문제가 되는 반대쪽 전극의 손상이나 파티클 발생 등의 문제 해결 가능
1015 ions/cm2 이 300~ 700 eV 의 energy 로 표면과 충돌할 때 substrate 표면파괴 및 화학적인 오염이 심각함
residual film 형성
gas phase particle depositionmetallic impurities
불순물 제거 방법 : 습식 산화 제거에 의한 산소 또는 수소 plasma 처리