[국제기구론] OECD 분석(영문)에 대한 자료입니다.
III. Structure of OECD
1. The Council
4. Special bodies
V. Decision Making and Membership
VI. Evaluation and Conclusion
Brief information about OECD
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organisation where 30 democratic countries co-operate based on the principles of representative democracy and free-market economy. The member countries work together to achieve the economic, social, and governance goals of globalization.
The OECD was established in September 1961, followed by reconstitution of OEEC which was founded in 1948 to overcome the economic crisis in Europe. The OECD headquarters are located in Paris, France as written above. 20 countries were the founding members of OECD – Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Republic of Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, and United States. Later, 10 more countries joined the Organization, so the OECD consists of 30 member countries – Japan(1964), Finland(1969), Australia(1971), New Zealand(1973), Mexico(1994), Czech Republic(1995), South Korea(1996), Hungary(1996), Poland(1996), Slovakia(2000). The OECD budget for 2009 is EUR 303 million. There are 2,500 secretariat staffs in the OECD secretariat. The Secretariat is organized in directorates, and it is led by the Secretary-General. The current Secretary-General is Angel Gurría. He was appointed by the member countries on 1st June 2006. He was born on May 8th, 1950, in Tampico, Mexico. He was Mexico’s Minister of Foreign Affairs from December 1994 to January 1998. In addition, from January 1998 to December 2000, he was Mexico’s Minister of Finance and Public Credit. He had these two distinguished careers in public service before he became the Secretary-General of OECD. The OECD publishes about 250 books, reports, statistics, working papers and reference materials per year. The OECD also provides comparable statistics which support all the OECD activities. The official languages are English and French.
Principle of OECD
Article 1 well explains the main principles of OECD. It states that aims of the Organization are to promote various policies for specific purposes. Such promoted policies are to achieve the highest sustainable economic growth and employment and a rising standard of living in member countries, while maintaining financial stability, and thus to contribute to the development of the world economy. Moreover, these policies are designed to contribute to sound economic expansion in member as well as non-member countries in the process of economic development and to be conducive to the expansion of world trade on multilateral, non-discriminatory basis in accordance with international obligations.
Genesis of OECD
OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) succeeds to OEEC (Organization for European Economic Cooperation), which was established in 1948. The original tasks of OEEC were the administration of Marshall Plan and cooperative efforts for the recovery in Europe from the economic disaster of the World War II. Around the year when OEEC was about to close, European countries’ desire to take the leading roles in the world had been increased. Also, the industrialized countries called for new arrangements for the international economic cooperation. Eventually, those voices resulted in two ways. One was for European Integration, and the other supported for the establishment of OECD, in which not only European countries but also developed countries outside Europe could participate. In this context, we can find out where and why OECD was established.
Specifically, I will illustrate the genesis of OECD. In ‘Western summit meeting (December 1959),’ the Presidents of France and U.S., the Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the Prime Minister of the U.K took the first practical steps for the genesis of OECD. They agreed to establish several objects; the aid for developing countries and the pursuit of free trade that could contribute to elevating standards of living. In addition, they shared their opinions on the establishment of European economic regional organization of which participants were once included to the Executive Committee of OEEC.
In January 1960, Representatives of thirteen countries and the European Economic Committee (the Six) had a meeting. In this meeting, they determined who would participate in the organization. They proclaimed the first resolution and submitted the first draft clarifying purposes of the organization. Following the first resolution, the second one noted that 8 counties were required to invite other capital exporting countries to participate in this work. These resolutions were unanimously approved by the ministers of the 12 OEEC member and associated countries, together with a representative, as before, of EEC (European Economic Community). In this step, it revealed that OECD was constituted itself in accordance with EEC.
3. OECD, OECD History Aim Structure (1972)
6. Peer Review in Economic Surveys: the role of the EDRC, http://www.oecd.org/document/23/0,3343,en_21571361_37949547_37970135_1_1_1_1,00.html
7. On-line guide to OECD intergovernmental activity, http://webnet3.oecd.org/OECDgroups/Bodies.asp?body_id=778&lng=E
9. Development Co-operation Directorate (DCD-DAC), http://www.oecd.org/about/0,3347,en_2649_33721_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
10. Who drives the OECD works? http://www.oecd.org/pages/0,3417,en_36734052_36761791_1_1_1_1_1,00.html
11. The NEA Mission, http://www.nea.fr/html/nea/flyeren.html
12. OECD, http://www.oecd.org/pages/0,3417,en_36734